The Different Types of Cutting Fluid Used in Metal Cutting

The Different Types of Cutting Fluid Used in Metal Cutting

Feb 8th 2023

Much like hydraulic fluids and engine oil, cutting fluid helps regulate the temperature of machinery, prevent corrosion, minimize wear and tear, and improve the lifespan of machinery. The difference between them is that cutting fluids are coolants and lubricants. However, similar to its lubricant counterparts, it comes in more than just one type. If you want to find the best lubricant for your business or your next project, read on to learn the different types of cutting fluid used in metal cutting.

Synthetic Metal Cutting Fluids

Formulated from alkaline organic and inorganic compounds, synthetic metal cutting fluids do not contain a petroleum or mineral oil base. Typically, they contain anti-corrosion additives, and out of all the cutting fluids, they have the best cooling performance overall.

Soluble Metal Cutting Oils

Soluble oils are phase mixtures that form oil-in-water emulsions. They contain a mixture of base oil, emulsifier, and other common additives, such as anti-wear anti-foaming additives. The concentration can be up to 85 percent if necessary, but they can function well in a diluted formulation, transferring heat quite efficiently.

Semi-Synthetic Metal Cutting Fluids

Semi-synthetic cutting fluids are a combination of soluble oils and synthetic fluids. The formulation can vary widely, containing anywhere from 5 to 35 percent oil. However, the lower the oil percentage, the quicker heat dissipates, extending tool life. Essentially, much like its synthetic counterpart, it combines the best characteristics of water and oil by suspending emulsified oil in a base of water.

Straight Metal Cutting Oils

Straight metal cutting oil has a petroleum, vegetable, or mineral oil base. These oils are non-emulsifiable and function best in their undiluted form, which is why people call them “straight.” While these are fantastic lubricants that typically contain additives to help them function under extreme pressure, they don’t have the best cooling abilities.

Now that you know the different types of cutting fluid used in metal cutting, you can determine which is best for your project. If you account for the typical heat and pressure of the application, you’re already on the right track. Whatever cutting fluid you need, Santie Oil Company sells various metalworking fluid synthetic lubricants, so you can find a product that suits your needs and your budget.